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Making Network Cables – CAT5e & CAT6

There are plenty of tutorials out there demonstrating how to crimp your own cables, but I wanted to emphasize a few points as to WHY you might want/need to build your own…and address why cabling is still relevant in these days when WiFi is so widely available.

So today i want to talk about network cables and situations where you might want to make your own i’ll give you some tips and tricks and techniques and talk about a few things that i don’t hear being taught much these days anymore so let’s stick around alright guys so network cables why would you want to make your own isn’t wi-fi just so available these days you

Know network cabling has a very nice feature that a lot of people don’t make use of but it has something called poe it’s a function that you can use over network cables in order to power devices and these days more and more devices are becoming poe compatible poe stands for power over ethernet and what it allows you to do is to push low voltage over the ethernet

Cable itself and power the device instead of having to plug it into a wall with a power brick or something like that but it’s very effective very efficient and a lot of devices are you know having this capability now and more being developed to utilize it so network cabling it looks like is still going to be relevant for quite a while some of these devices might

Include uh you know your desk phones the new voip phones uh they can actually just get their power over the ethernet cable rather than having to plug it into a power strip or something and it’s very convenient other devices might include wi-fi access points security cameras that kind of thing so it’s very functional so let’s talk about some other reasons why

You might want to make your own network cables okay one reason is uh you know instead of just buying pre-crimped cables is that it’s very hard to find something that is over 50 foot in length at your typical stores even if you manage to go to one of the large big box stores trying to find something over 75 or 100 feet is uh few and far between so you’re back

To either having to make your own or you’re gonna have to special order something you know so if you have those large distances to run you might want to consider making your own cables another reason is that when you look at an ethernet cable such as this it has these large connectors on it so if you’re trying to run this through an attic or through a wall or

Trying to conceal it somehow it’s very difficult to run these large ends through that you have to drill a hole if you’re going to drill through framing or something you’re going to have to drill a hole four times as big to get this connector through than if you just had to run the wire itself and you’ll also notice that these connectors what what’s on the end here

Is called an rj45 connector that’s the standard that it uses now you’ll notice that it has this protective locking tang on it that prevents the cable from pulling out and these tangs are very delicate so you have to be careful with them if you’re yanking this around through walls and things it’s very easy to break those off so you want to be delicate with those so

That’s another reason if you’re trying to run these through concealed spaces you know it’s a lot easier to run the wire alone than it is trying to run that through it so let’s talk about the tools you’ll need and there’s not many it’s actually very very simple um you will need a stripper to get the sheathing off of the wire and this is a spring-loaded just a cheap

Spring-loaded stripper the way this works is you have these different size slots in here for different size cables and it actually has a screw in here to adjust how deep this goes and it has the blade on there so that when this springs onto the cable you want to adjust that screw so you so you’ll have to make a couple of test runs on your cable don’t just grab it

Out of the box and go for it as you change different cables you might have to adjust that screw too but the idea is that you want to set it with just enough tension to just score the sheathing on the cable you don’t want to cut into the wire and cut the the sheathing off the individual strands of wire itself okay so this is just to strip the sheathing off uh it

Also has a blade in there so you can trim cut the the ends of the wires after you’ve done it i never really use that i usually use my crimper for that but um so there’s your stripper crimpers let’s talk about crimpers uh this is your standard it does two types of jacks it does the the bottom here is rj45 which is one we just looked at on a standard ethernet cable

The other one is rj11 so most of these crimpers will do both rj11 is your traditional phone line in your house that’s what that is for so these will crimp both rj45 you also have your your flush cut trimmers down here that you can do now this is one of those situations where i’m going to recommend that you actually stay away from some of the affordable tools that

Are out there in this i recommend that when you go with these tools that you actually start looking at the pass-through connectors okay because that’s the last tool you’re going to need is the connector itself to finish trim out the wire now these connectors there’s two types there’s the traditional type which most of the cheaper tools the 15 networking toolkits

You get those tools are the ones that use blind connectors meaning that you have to trim cut your wires off in order to make sure that they go the proper depth into your connector okay pass-through connectors mean that you don’t have to do that you can actually feed the wires all the way through the connector and then the tool itself actually has a blade it has a

Little guillotine blade in here that when you crimp the wire it trims those wires off at the same time so it’s a great time saver so i tech i tend to stay away from the cheaper network tools that way because it is a pain to to do it the old-school way and try and get your your depth trimmed right so that all the wires feed up in there just correctly it’s a lot

Easier to pull your wires through make sure they’re taut crimp it and have it trim those things off so these are great tools so so this is the one that i’m using now you see the the screenshot the amazon screenshot um there’s also another good one that that allows i think what happened is there was a company that was making these and they own the patent and so these

Tools used to be very expensive to get the pass-through connectors it was 150 to 200 to get these tools but ever since i believe the company’s patent ran out and so there’s other manufacturers that make them so just make sure that you know the difference that uh the tools you’re buying whether or not they are for blind connectors or the pass-through connectors the

Pass-throughs are the more convenient um there’s another brand that i really like and that’s the the new klein uh crimpers what i like about them is that they actually have the color codes imprinted on the tool itself so if you forget knowing your pin out codes are very very important so that’s one thing that’s good about the klein tool now let’s talk about those

Pin outs uh what and what uh what do i mean when i’m talking about a pin out inside your connector the pin out is what color wire goes into what placeholder okay that’s the pin out and there are two pinout standards there is what’s called 568a and 568b okay and why are there two standards uh well back in the old days they used to have these things called crossover

Cables and this is one of those things you don’t hear about much anymore but every now and again you know in companies that had a lot of old network cable boxes laying around and stuff you you might pull out a crossover cable and then you know notice some weirdness or something but um what a crossover cable was for was connecting light devices so if you wanted to

Connect a pc directly to a pc or if you wanted to connect a switch to another switch or a router to another router you would use a crossover cable to do it anytime that you didn’t have an a hub or a switch in the way that did that crossing over for you you would have to use the crossover cable that’s why there’s two standards and so what the 568a and 568b did is

A crossover cable meant that one end on one side was wired to 568a and the other end on the other side was wired to 568b and that was a crossover cable in today’s world everything is auto crossover you buy a switch it’s going to have that auto crossover in it so you don’t find crossover you’re going to have to special order one for some older equipment if you end

Up needing it but so how’s that relevant in today’s world today’s world the majority of the pin outs you’re going to see the majority of cables conform to the 568b standard okay so that’s the standard we really want to focus on and that means that it is wired to 568b on both ends of the cable and so if you were to compare those ends and hold them up and go left to

Right you will see that they are wired the same so they use the same on both sides you would definitely see the color codes in there uh if it was a crossover cable and they wouldn’t match up so you’d see that okay let’s talk about some common mistakes the most common mistake that people have is ignoring the proper pin outs people just pick a color code they just

Pick them at random and then they crimp one side on and then they just make it match on the other side and you can’t do that if you strip those cables back and once you unwrap the wire pairs one thing that you’re going to notice is that those those wires are all all the pairs they are twisted at a different wrap at a different wrap tension so some of them have

More twists in them than others and so that affects your transmission rates and that’s why you can’t just pick wires and like put all the striped ones together and then all the solid ones or pick a color code from light to dark you can’t do that um because of that those those twists are very important and that’s why the twists and the wires that they correspond

With have to go into the right placeholder so that’s your pin out and that’s why it’s important to use that 568b standard another common mistake that i see is on older connectors the blind connectors okay again there’s a reason i prefer the pass-through connectors but on the older blind connectors when you had to flush trim your wires off prior to getting them

Into the connector people would leave a lot of length on there and then they would you know have the the wire the sheath cut way back and you know it’s important to maintain those twists as far in there you want a nice tight uh crimp and you want to maintain those twists as far as you can into the wire again another reason for preferring the pass-through connectors

The other common mistake i see people making is that when they’re using their wire stripper they didn’t adjust it to only cut through the sheathing to only score the sheathing of the wire and sometimes they cut into the wires themselves and you want to really avoid that it’ll weaken the wires and you don’t want to risk the sheathing pulling off at any time or

Stripping back now let’s talk about the actual operation of it so i have here a standard cat5e i believe plenum grade wire i’m going to take my stripper and again the goal here is to not cut the sheath you want to score it so it makes it easier to pull off because you want to be very careful not to cut into the wires that are inside there so this has already

Been pre-measured i’ve already got my screw tension adjusted there so when you go to cut this uh leave a generous amount okay it’s easier to just to untwist the wires later if you leave a generous amount and then you can always cut that off later but i’m gonna give an inch and a half to two inches or so uh just let the tool hold itself on there okay and all i’m

Gonna do is make one twist that’s it that’s all it takes to score the wire and you’ll notice there’s a little score in there and almost like breaking glass at this point you can just bend that wire and you’ll see it separate okay so it almost snaps off on it depends on the sheathing if it’s good wire it should just snap off you know without having to cut all the

Way through it so that’s it one twist and then you’re ready to go pull the sheathing off sometimes in here you’ll see this the rip cord uh and what that’s there for several reasons one is it helps you to if you need to tear the sheathing back further you can use that as a tool to help do it but it’s also a stiffener so when you’re pulling this through tight

Areas you’re you’re not pulling against the wire it helps to stiffen so that you’re not stretching out the wires or anything like that now when you get in and start looking at your colored pairs uh take a look at the wires and just observe them and you will see that there are tighter wraps on some of those so that that’s what makes some of them more difficult to

Unwrap so i’m going to unwrap these twists okay now that was only like three twists on that one on the orange pair you can see how much tighter the green pair is the blue pair is really tight in fact i can barely get it get my fingers in there okay so unwrap that and your brown pair so there you go now 568b standard again refer to that i have memorized basically

It’s going to be white orange orange white green blue white blue green the way i remember this is i know the blue pair is always in the middle and ironically on the b standard so i know that the blue pair deviates from the standard convention all the other colors it’s always the striped wire that goes before the solid but the blue pair gets reversed and so is the

Stripe wire that goes after the solid on that one your green pair is being split and then the brown pair so that’s a mess so what are we going to do about that the way that i tend to do this is just kind of get your wires roughly at this point you don’t if one crosses over the other it doesn’t matter at this point um but we’ll just get this in place and then you

Know just like you were curling paper with scissors to get these straight again i just tend to use my thumb and finger and just bend back and forth and rub along them like that to get them straightened out okay verify the pin out white orange orange white green blue white blue green white brown brown okay i’ve got my order make sure they’re nice and straight the

Gapping is all even verify again keep verifying now your ends are not going to come out once you finish doing this your ends are not going to be coming out exact so it helps to use your flush cutters here just trim those off to make sure all your ends are flush keep watching those wire pairs they have a nasty tendency to flip on you it is very monotonous work

But they have a bad tendency to flip around and you won’t notice it keep watching them keep repeating that pattern to yourself save your sanity okay i’m going to stick them into my connector and you have to wiggle them around a little bit once they get into the connector i’m going to verify white orange orange white green blue white blue green white brown bra

Okay got it and this is why you use pass-through connectors so you can push the cable up in there making sure the sheath goes nice and tightly into into the connector and again while you use the pass-throughs i’m going to feed the wires into the tool make sure they’re seated nice and well and i’m just going to crimp down and there you have it you can see it

It trimmed off the connectors for me real well and that’s it anyway guys i hope you found this helpful and uh informative like and subscribe if you haven’t already uh hit the button and you know we’ll talk to you later you

Transcribed from video
Making Network Cables – CAT5e & CAT6 By Affordable Tech Solutions